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Posted by: Feshura Posted on: 31.05.2020

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This page has been archived and is no longer ated. Despite seeming like a relatively stable place, the Earth's surface has changed dramatically over the past 4. Mountains have been built and eroded, continents and oceans have moved great distances, and the Earth has fluctuated from being extremely cold and almost completely covered with ice to being very warm and ice-free. These changes typically occur so slowly that they are barely detectable over the span of a human life, yet even at this instant, the Earth's surface is moving and changing. As these changes have occurred, organisms have evolved, and remnants of some have been preserved as fossils. A fossil can be studied to determine what kind of organism it represents, how the organism lived, and how it was preserved. However, by itself a fossil has little meaning unless it is placed within some context.

An isochron plot is used to solve the age equation graphically and calculate the age of the sample and the original composition. Radiometric dating has been carried out since when it was invented by Ernest Rutherford as a method by which one might determine the age of the Earth. In the century since then the techniques have been greatly improved and expanded. The mass spectrometer was invented in the s and began to be used in radiometric dating in the s. It operates by generating a beam of ionized atoms from the sample under test.

The ions then travel through a magnetic field, which diverts them into different sampling sensors, known as " Faraday cups ", depending on their mass and level of ionization. On impact in the cups, the ions set up a very weak current that can be measured to determine the rate of impacts and the relative concentrations of different atoms in the beams.

The oldest rocks exposed in the canyon are ancient, 1, million years old. Conversely, the canyon itself is geologically young, having been carved in the last 6 million years. The ages measured for Earth's oldest rocks and oldest crystals show that the Earth is at least billion years in age but do not reveal the exact age of Earth's formation. The best age for the Earth ( Ga) is based on old, presumed single-stage leads coupled with the Pb ratios in troilite from iron meteorites, specifically the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Relative dating to determine the age of rocks and fossils Geologists have established a set of principles that can be applied to sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are exposed at the Earth's.

Uranium-lead radiometric dating involves using uranium or uranium to date a substance's absolute age. This scheme has been refined to the point that the error margin in dates of rocks can be as low as less than two million years in two-and-a-half billion years.

Uranium-lead dating is often performed on the mineral zircon ZrSiO 4though it can be used on other materials, such as baddeleyiteas well as monazite see: monazite geochronology. Zircon has a very high closure temperature, is resistant to mechanical weathering and is very chemically inert. Zircon also forms multiple crystal layers during metamorphic events, which each may record an isotopic age of the event.

One of its great advantages is that any sample provides two clocks, one based on uranium's decay to lead with a half-life of about million years, and one based on uranium's decay to lead with a half-life of about 4. This can be seen in the concordia diagram, where the samples plot along an errorchron straight line which intersects the concordia curve at the age of the sample. This involves the alpha decay of Sm to Nd with a half-life of 1. Accuracy levels of within twenty million years in ages of two-and-a-half billion years are achievable.

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This involves electron capture or positron decay of potassium to argon Potassium has a half-life of 1. This is based on the beta decay of rubidium to strontiumwith a half-life of 50 billion years.

This scheme is used to date old igneous and metamorphic rocksand has also been used to date lunar samples. Closure temperatures are so high that they are not a concern.

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Rubidium-strontium dating is not as precise as the uranium-lead method, with errors of 30 to 50 million years for a 3-billion-year-old sample.

Application of in situ analysis Laser-Ablation ICP-MS within single mineral grains in faults have shown that the Rb-Sr method can be used to decipher episodes of fault movement. A relatively short-range dating technique is based on the decay of uranium into thorium, a substance with a half-life of about 80, years.

It is accompanied by a sister process, in which uranium decays into protactinium, which has a half-life of 32, years. While uranium is water-soluble, thorium and protactinium are not, and so they are selectively precipitated into ocean-floor sedimentsfrom which their ratios are measured.

The scheme has a range of several hundred thousand years. A related method is ionium-thorium datingwhich measures the ratio of ionium thorium to thorium in ocean sediment. Radiocarbon dating is also simply called carbon dating.

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Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon, with a half-life of 5, years [28] [29] which is very short compared with the above isotopesand decays into nitrogen. Carbon, though, is continuously created through collisions of neutrons generated by cosmic rays with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere and thus remains at a near-constant level on Earth.

The carbon ends up as a trace component in atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2. A carbon-based life form acquires carbon during its lifetime.

Plants acquire it through photosynthesisand animals acquire it from consumption of plants and other animals. When an organism dies, it ceases to take in new carbon, and the existing isotope decays with a characteristic half-life years. The proportion of carbon left when the remains of the organism are examined provides an indication of the time elapsed since its death.

This makes carbon an ideal dating method to date the age of bones or the remains of an organism. The carbon dating limit lies around 58, to 62, years. The rate of creation of carbon appears to be roughly constant, as cross-checks of carbon dating with other dating methods show it gives consistent results.

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However, local eruptions of volcanoes or other events that give off large amounts of carbon dioxide can reduce local concentrations of carbon and give inaccurate dates. The releases of carbon dioxide into the biosphere as a consequence of industrialization have also depressed the proportion of carbon by a few percent; conversely, the amount of carbon was increased by above-ground nuclear bomb tests that were conducted into the early s.

Also, an increase in the solar wind or the Earth's magnetic field above the current value would depress the amount of carbon created in the atmosphere.

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This involves inspection of a polished slice of a material to determine the density of "track" markings left in it by the spontaneous fission of uranium impurities. The uranium content of the sample has to be known, but that can be determined by placing a plastic film over the polished slice of the material, and bombarding it with slow neutrons.

This causes induced fission of U, as opposed to the spontaneous fission of U. The fission tracks produced by this process are recorded in the plastic film. The uranium content of the material can then be calculated from the number of tracks and the neutron flux.

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This scheme has application over a wide range of geologic dates. For dates up to a few million years micastektites glass fragments from volcanic eruptionsand meteorites are best used. Older materials can be dated using zirconapatitetitaniteepidote and garnet which have a variable amount of uranium content.

The technique has potential applications for detailing the thermal history of a deposit. The residence time of 36 Cl in the atmosphere is about 1 week. Thus, as an event marker of s water in soil and ground water, 36 Cl is also useful for dating waters less than 50 years before the present. Luminescence dating methods are not radiometric dating methods in that they do not rely on abundances of isotopes to calculate age.

Instead, they are a consequence of background radiation on certain minerals. Over time, ionizing radiation is absorbed by mineral grains in sediments and archaeological materials such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The radiation causes charge to remain within the grains in structurally unstable "electron traps". Exposure to sunlight or heat releases these charges, effectively "bleaching" the sample and resetting the clock to zero.

The trapped charge accumulates over time at a rate determined by the amount of background radiation at the location where the sample was buried.

Stimulating these mineral grains using either light optically stimulated luminescence or infrared stimulated luminescence dating or heat thermoluminescence dating causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral. These methods can be used to date the age of a sediment layer, as layers deposited on top would prevent the grains from being "bleached" and reset by sunlight.

Pottery shards can be dated to the last time they experienced significant heat, generally when they were fired in a kiln. Absolute radiometric dating requires a measurable fraction of parent nucleus to remain in the sample rock. For rocks dating back to the beginning of the solar system, this requires extremely long-lived parent isotopes, making measurement of such rocks' exact ages imprecise. To be able to distinguish the relative ages of rocks from such old material, and to get a better time resolution than that available from long-lived isotopes, short-lived isotopes that are no longer present in the rock can be used.

At the beginning of the solar system, there were several relatively short-lived radionuclides like 26 Al, 60 Fe, 53 Mn, and I present within the solar nebula. These radionuclides-possibly produced by the explosion of a supernova-are extinct today, but their decay products can be detected in very old material, such as that which constitutes meteorites. By measuring the decay products of extinct radionuclides with a mass spectrometer and using isochronplots, it is possible to determine relative ages of different events in the early history of the solar system.

Dating methods based on extinct radionuclides can also be calibrated with the U-Pb method to give absolute ages. Thus both the approximate age and a high time resolution can be obtained. Generally a shorter half-life leads to a higher time resolution at the expense of timescale. The iodine-xenon chronometer [35] is an isochron technique. Samples are exposed to neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

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This converts the only stable isotope of iodine I into Xe via neutron capture followed by beta decay of I. The Archean eon, extending from 3. Because radioactive materials were present in amounts far greater than today, the heat from their decay drove volcanism and other geologic activity at extraordinary rates.

Geologists do not agree on whether plate tectonics were active during the Archean eon or whether Earth's crust was even made up of plates at this time. However, smaller land masses were developing and being destroyed and rocks were forming at much higher temperatures than are possible today. The atmosphere was radically different as well, containing very little oxygen.

Certain kinds of iron ores formed that would not have been possible had oxygen been present in the atmosphere.

Most modern life forms could not have survived in the oxygen-poor atmosphere of the Archean eon. Despite the lack of oxygen, the first kinds of life arose in the Archean: anaerobic bacteria that formed into mats, columns, or cones called stromatolites.

Many different kinds of fossilized stromatolites have been found in different rock formations around the world, giving geologists a great deal of information about the Archean eon.

They show that different kinds of bacteria lived together in an ecosystem, that some bacteria used photosynthesis to generate energy from the sun while others relied on different sources, and that areas of both shallow and deep water were present. Although the fossil evidence from the Archean is limited, all the life forms discovered so far have been single-celled prokaryotes that lack a nucleus.

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The Archean was followed by the Proterozoic, occurring between 2. During this eon life began to transform into types that we recognize today, changing Earth along with it. Shallow seas formed and the atmosphere began to change as well. During the Paleoproterozoic era the earliest part of the Proterozoic eon an event known as the oxygen catastrophe occurred: a relatively sudden increase in the amount of available oxygen which was the result of a complex chain of events.

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Since the Archean eon, early bacteria had been excreting oxygen as a waste product. Initially, most of the oxygen was consumed in the oxidation of minerals and metals such as iron. As the amount of unoxidized iron began to decrease, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased.

This poisoned some types of anaerobic Archean bacteria, but spurred others to use oxygen in their metabolism, a much more efficient way of processing energy. Aerobic organisms became dominant in the Proterozoic eon. The Mesoproterozoic era the middle part of the Proterozoic eon saw the development of eukaryotes, single-celled organisms with a nucleus.

During the end of the Neoproterozoic era the most recent part of the eonin a division known as the Ediacaran period, the earliest complex multicellular organisms appeared. These soft-bodied creatures appear to have lived on the bottom of shallow seas, not unlike modern corals or sponges.

They were diverse in size, structural complexity, shape, and symmetry. The Ediacaran period is the most recently recognized of all the eons, eras, and periods, named for the Ediacara area in Australia, where many of the fossils have been found.

Alongside the rapidly changing life forms of the Proterozoic eon, significant geological processes were occurring. The supercontinent called Rodinia formed at the end of the Stenian period in the Mesoproterozoic. The first ice ages occurred during the Proterozoic era. The end of the Proterozoic is marked by a dramatic event in the fossil record known as the Cambrian explosion.

At this time, a remarkable increase in the numbers and types of species is seen, as well as the first hard-bodied animals, i. During this time, life evolved from the simplest sponges, jellyfish, and worms to include almost everything we can think of that is alive today. Geological periods during the Phanerozoic are divided into smaller epochs based on changes in the kinds of life that appear in the fossil record.

The larger number of fossilized species present and the relatively short period of time since their deposit allow this more precise dating. The largest divisions of the Phanerozoic eon are the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras. Each lasted for millions of years and each is broadly characterized by the degree of development that the life within it has undergone.

The Paleozoic is divided into the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous which is sometimes divided into the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian eras and Permian periods. Each of these is further divided into several epochs, some named for places where their major characteristics were discovered, others simply divided into early, middle, and late epochs.

During the Paleozoic erainsects, plants, the first vertebrate animals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, sharks, and corals all appeared.

Often, it is the changes in the kinds of animals and plants that are used to decide boundaries between the different periods. Despite the emphasis on life in describing the various ages of the Paleozoic, geologic processes were still. Supercontinents formed and broke apart, several ice ages advanced and retreated, temperatures fluctuated, and sea levels rose and fell.

These diverse processes influenced the many changes in life that are recorded in the fossils of the era-coal deposits in Europe laid down during the Carboniferous period are one of its more famous features.

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At the end of the Paleozoic eraa disastrous event known as the Permian-Triassic extinction led to the destruction of almost all Paleozoic species. Though there have been efforts to link this extinction to a meteorite impact, no convincing evidence of a large enough collision during this time period has been found. Dinosaurs appeared during the Mesozoic era.

The names of the periods in the Mesozoic era may sound familiar: Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. During this million-year era, all the familiar dinosaurs such as triceratops, tyrannosaurus, stegosaurus, diplodocus, and apatosaurus flourished at different times. Some modern animals have ancestors that first appeared during the Mesozoic era, including birds, crocodiles, and mammals.

Plants continued to develop, and the first flowering plants appeared. The end of the Mesozoic era can be seen clearly in some rock layers.

Absolute dating by means of uranium and lead isotopes has been improved to the point that for rocks 3 billion years old geologically meaningful errors of less than 1 million years can be obtained. The same margin of error applies for younger fossiliferous rocks, making absolute dating comparable in precision to that attained using fossils. Earth is about billion years old. Geologists divide this age into major and minor units of time that describe the kinds of geological processes and life forms that existed in them. Earth's geologic record was formed by constant change, just like those that occur routinely today. By dating the rocks in Earth's ever-changing crust, as well as the rocks in Earth's neighbors, such as the moon and visiting meteorites, scientists have calculated that Earth is billion years.

Known as the K-T Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, this dark line of sediment is rich in the element iridium. Another massive extinction of species occurred at this time, possibly because of one or more meteorite impacts along with a period of intense volcanic activity.

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This would have decreased the amount of sunlight reaching Earth's surface, killing plants and, eventually, animals. Not all geologists and paleontologists are convinced that the K-T extinction was a catastrophic event; some argue that it occurred over a few million years after slower climate changes. The Cenozoic erathe current era of geologic time, is divided into the Paleogene and Neogene periods, and further into the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs.

During the Cenozoic, the supercontinent of Gondwana broke apart, and the continents reached their current positions. Several ice ages occurred, and the poles became ice-covered.

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The first mammals began to flourish in the Paleocene; the first apes appeared in the Miocene; and the first human ancestors in the Pliocene. Modern humans, along with large animals such as mammoths and wooly rhinoceroses, appeared in the Pleistocene.

The Holocene epochcurrently ongoing, began with the end of the last ice age, less than 10, years ago. Though this vast span of time was largely understood by the end of the nineteenth century, geologists, paleontologists, and scientists of other disciplines were still curious about Earth's absolute ageusing different approaches to tackle the problem.

In the s William Thomson -more commonly known as Lord Kelvin, applied his theories of thermodynamics to determine Earth's age. He surmised that Earth was between 20 and 40 million years old by calculating the time it should take for it to cool from a liquid to a solid. Though his calculations and some of his assumptions were correct, he failed to account for heat added by radioactivity.

Around the turn of the twentieth century, Irish geologist John Joly - estimated Earth's age by analyzing the salt content of the seas. He then assumed that the oceans had started off as freshwater, and that all the salt had washed into them from the land. This relied on the assumption that the rate of salt coming into the oceans was constant and that no salt had ever been removed from the seas.

By this calculation he arrived at an age of about million years. Scientists needed a method that relied on something measurable over Earth's entire lifespan. This evidence challenges assumption 4. To illustrate how much radioisotope dating hinges on assumptions, imagine you encounter a burning candle sitting on a table.

How long has that candle been burning? However, if the original length is not known, or if it cannot be verified that the burning rate has been constant, it is impossible to tell for sure how long the candle was burning. A similar problem occurs with radiometric dating of rocks. #15 - Relative age-dating of rocks; sediments, superposition, hints of deep time

Since the initial physical state of the rock is unknowable, workers must assume it. Scientific literature omitted from public school textbooks reveal radioisotope age assignments much older than the known ages of many rocks.

These results first arrived in the s and s, but most of the scientific community still pays no attention. Argon and helium isotopes were measured from recent basalt lava erupted on the deep ocean floor from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Researchers calculated up to 22, years for brand new rocks! Table 2 gives six examples among many more.

The oldest real age of these recent volcanic rocks is less than years. People witnessed and described the molten lava solidify into most of these rocks just decades ago.

Many of these were only about 10 years old. Potassium-Argon 40 K- 40 Ar has been the most widespread method of radioactive age-dating for the Phanerozoic rocks, where most fossils occur.

Dating rocks and age of the earth

The misdated rocks shown above violate the initial condition assumption of no radiogenic argon 40 Ar present when the igneous rock formed. There is too much 40 Ar present in recent lava flows. Thus, the method gives excessively old ages for recent rocks. Could the argon they measured have come from a source other than radioactive potassium decay?

If so, then geologists have been trusting a faulty method. Furthermore, the slow radioactive decay of 40 K shows that there was insufficient time since cooling for measurable amounts of 40 Ar to have accumulated in the rock. Therefore, radiogenic argon 40 Ar was already present in the rocks as they formed.

Radiometric age dating should no longer be sold to the public as providing reliable, absolute ages. Excess argon invalidates the initial condition assumption for potassium dating, and excess helium invalidates the closed-system assumption for uranium dating.

The ages shown on the uniformitarian geologic time scale should be removed. Researchers have scoured the Ono Formation near Redding in northern California. They described it in scientific publications for more than years. Because the area has millions of fossils including the valuable ammonites and fossilized wood trapped in the same mudflow layers, it provides a unique opportunity for carbon dating.

If the wood still has relatively short-lived radiocarbon inside it, then the age of the supposedly ancient fossils would need revision. Geologist Andrew Snelling gathered four samples of ammonites and wood buried and fossilized together in this solidified mudstone and sent them to the IsoTrace Radiocarbon Laboratory at the University of Toronto, Canada for dating analysis.

Because the ammonites and wood fossils came from a rock unit conventionally regarded as to million years old, the fossils should share that same age. Such an age far exceeds the limit of the radioactive carbon 14 C method, which in theory extends to artifacts less thancarbon years old. In other words, if these fossils are really over million years old, then there should have been absolutely no measurable 14 C in them-but there was-enough to produce easily measurable ages of 32, to 48, years!

Scientists who believe in long ages assert that the ammonites and wood samples were contaminated with modern carbon in the ground, during sampling, or even in the laboratory. But this study took extensive steps to guard against such contamination. So how can 36, carbon-year-old ammonites and 32, carbon-year-old wood be stuck in a mudflow of million or more conventional years?

Two logical options present themselves:. If Biblical history is accurate as we believe it is, then the second option is the correct choice- none of the dates are correct.

The fact that measurable 14 C existed in the ammonites and wood fossils shows that they are very young-certainly not - million years old.

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But how can they still outdate the Biblical age of Creation of about 6, years? A number of factors help explain this.

Oct 27, We are told that scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to measure the age of rocks. We are also told that this method very reliably and consistently yields ages of millions to billions of years, thereby establishing beyond question that the earth is immensely old - a concept known as deep time. The oldest real age of these recent volcanic rocks is less than years. People witnessed and described the molten lava solidify into most of these rocks just decades ago. Many of these were only about 10 years old. And yet 40 K- 40 Ar dating gives ages from , to >22, years.

Therefore, the true ages of the ammonites and wood are consistent with their burial during the Genesis Flood about 4, years ago.

Miller and Joseph S. Levine, Biology. Boston, MA. Biddle editorCreation V. Roger Sigler, M. Woodford, Historical Geology. Freeman and Company, : - Green Forest, AR. Noble and J. Naughton, Science: - Walsh ed. Creation 10 3 : - see: www.

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