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Outwash plains are age control was available from adjacent terraces. McCalpin obtained a radiocarbon age of tive deposits and features e. Maizels, ; Amos et al. Surface clasts are all Torlesse silts. This minimum age of abandonment for the terrace tread greywacke Rakaia sub-terrane. Mason et al. Efforts were taken radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence OSL to sample where previously numerically dated samples had been dates.
A discrepancy between Mason units elsewhere Amos et al. This was interpreted In addition to these four study sites, a test site at Cloudy Peaks, on to have reduced the surface exposure time and hence the the edge of the Mackenzie basin, was selected for comparison be- weathering rind age.
We therefore use Mason et al. Surface clasts used for SHD consist of Rakaia sub-terrane 14 ka terraces along the Hope Fault-bounded range front greywacke rocks. Figure 1D.
The terraces were formed by incision into late Pleistocene gravel and greywacke bedrock, and are capped with a veneer of younger aggradational gravels Bull and Methodology Knuepfer, Control of potential of the 14 ka aggradation event described by Bull and Knuepfer instrument error was constrained by pre- and post-sampling Terraces younger than T0 were dated by Knuepfer checks of correct calibration using a test anvil in order to detect using weathering rinds calibrated with radiocarbon instrumental deterioration during the measurement campaign.
Of these 11, three were selected for One SH impact was delivered on each clast for a minimum of SHD - most terraces were only subtly preserved in the land- 50 clasts per surface e.
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Matthews and Shakesby, ; scape and lacked surface clasts. Although predominantly Winkler, This provides a statistically significant sample Torlesse greywacke Pahau sub-terranethe modern stream size and produces similar results to much larger sample sizes also contains boulders of trachybasalt, either from the local Niedzielski et al. The weathering pattern of both lithologies is similar tighten the instrumental error margins e. The terraces consist pri- suggested for weathering rind studies McSaveney, Table I.
T1 at the Saxton River ; Shakesby et al.
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If small particles site. This method weighted the dataset towards clasts with a were chipped off during sampling or the sound of the SH more reliable exposure history without discarding data that may impact was not resonant indicating possible cracks invisible be relevant to the surface exposure age. The clast surfaces were not brushed Clasts with less than 15 cm of rock exposed at the surface clean or smoothed prior to SH sampling so that the full were avoided during sampling.
While there mineral veins or structural discontinuities were avoided is little constraint on subsurface clast geometry and edge effects Ozbek and Gul, This was done to investigate possible changes in for consistent results is likely somewhat higher for a SHN.
Climate stations that were nearest to our study sites ii The terrace gravels we observed in outcrop rarely contained maximum 55 km and in similar microclimates were chosen.
Thirty-year averages for each stability, and clasts that moved during sampling were month were extrapolated to full year values i. Additionally, if a clast was chipped 12 to obtain a range of possible annual precipitations MAPmonth during sampling, or the SH sounded flat rather than reso- and maximum mean temperatures MATmonth.
These are nant, indicative of a shallow discontinuity as with disk- preferred over mean annual temperature and precipitation shaped claststhe R-value was omitted from the dataset. We believe that extremes control long-term rates more so than lower average these effects were minimal, as most clasts sampled values e. Velbel, So long as the effect is Petrologic data for the Torlesse sub-terranes were com- constant i. The modal e.
Equotip due to significantly smaller R-value variance percentages of Petrofacies 5 MacKinnon, ; Roser and Viles et al. QFL percentages from greywacke within the Esk Head Melange are more difficult When different lithologies could be identified in the ter- to quantify, but data from the greywacke blocks in the races and active stream bed e.
Where the into the Pahau terrane Feary, were taken as represen- weathering of two similar lithologies on older terraces made tative modal percentages. Catchment lithologies and proportional Results contributions to the fluvial system are assumed not to have changed over time. SH data For surface clasts with a simple exposure history, SH R-values are expected to be normally distributed Winkler,SHR values for all study sites decrease with an increase in and the mean R-value from a series of measurements is the most terrace age Figure 2.
In all three curves, SHR can be correlated often used proxy for the surface exposure age e. Goudie, with age using a power law function of the simple form Niedzielski et al. The median R-value SHR is less affected by statistical timescales ranging from years Waipara to years outliers than the mean and is preferred in this study.
Both mean Mackenzie basin timescales. The curves are generally and median values for the study sites are listed in Table I. This implies that among SHR. The analysis was run as a multiple comparisons a short period c. Abdi, MA regression see Warton et al. This enables comparison Q of terraces spanning three orders of magnitude of ages and errors. The interest in this study is the former.
Table IV shows the results of these tests and curve fitting. The power law constants control different cts of the chronofunction form. It is interpreted as being inversely related to weathering rate. This approach to predicting Lake Tekapo, Air Safaris Molesworth age uncertainty or more specifically equation error is MAPJul preferred in this study for its simplicity. Predicted age errors Fairlie for linear regressions involving SH measurement error are discussed in full by Shakesby et al.
Because SHR is related to age by a power law in this study, both SHR and age are logarithmically transformed in the regression Cloudy Peaks Cloudy Peaks procedure, which simultaneously transforms the errors. Waipara Waipara straight-forward age error distributions using SHR are not Saxton Saxton possible, but the double transformation reduces the increasing Site Site variability in age observed by Shakesby et al. Vertical asymptote is drawn through the age with a corresponding SHR value equal to that of the modern stream.
Table IV. See text for discussion. SH studies of - year timescale features have pointed towards curvilinear relationships White et al. Curvilinear correlations on such short timescales could be due to comparatively small datasets, uncertainty in numerical ages, exceptionally fast weathering conditions, or coincidental, non-age related variations in rock surface hardness between study sites Shakesby et al.
Our data show that the relationship between SHR and age is curvilinear in all instances regardless of timescale.
OLS fitting of a linear regression produces reasonable results for the Waipara terraces, but even fitting of a second-order polynomial produces a higher correlation coefficient. Linear regressions at the other sites can only be obtained by excluding data from older terraces. For numerous time-dependent weathering processes, there is laboratory and field-based evidence that the fundamental pro- cesses governing weathering follow a power law. Busenberg and Clemency noted that the kinetic dissolution of feldspars follows a power law for some stages of weathering in the laboratory.
Harden found a power law relation- Figure 3.
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The SHR-Age data on a logarithmic scale for the three ship for the accumulation of clay content through time in soils curves shown in Figure 2A-2C. Dark lines solid for known data and dashed for assumed continuation show the maximum likelihood ranging from 10 ka to 3 Ma.
Taylor and Blum compared estimation of a common slope b-value for the three groups. The line the relative proportions of cations in unweathered parent mate- position is determined by a-value in Equation 1, which increases with rial for a glacial chronosequence and obtained a power law decreasing weathering rate. The fine-dotted lines are linear interpola- relationship with age.
Matrix of Kruskal-Wallis test results. B Representative proportion of lithics in Torlesse sub-terrane versus a-value for the four study sites and Cloudy Peaks test site. C Adjusted chemical weathering rates versus a-value and best-fit regressions for the four study sites. Data for the Cloudy Peaks test site is plotted but not included in the regression analysis.
The key in the lower right applies to all three sub-figures. Table V.
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Minimum, median, weighted average and maximum values and drew the same conclusions. These results are reflected in of adjusted chemical weathering flux the current study. Modern chemical weathering rates are precipitation and temperature dependent Equation 3; White and Blum, Simple relatively low for our study sites. More importantly, the cluster- and modified power laws are commonly used for weathering ing of points shows that there are only small variations in Qx rind thickness chronofunctions in New Zealand Chinn, ; from one site to another.
These variations cannot fully explain Whitehouse et al.
Since chemical weathering in Vance et al. They show that ways e. White between a-value and increasing lithic content. Figure 5C shows the relationship of adjusted chemical weathering rate, Wx, to a-value for our four study sites. The data for the Cloudy Peaks test site is plotted for comparison, but not included in determination of the regressions or correlation coefficients.
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The data show that the highest weathering rates at a site have a strong correlation with a-value; the regression is linear for Wxmax and a second-order polynomial for Wxavg and Wxmedian. The Wxmin does not show a useful correlation with a-value due to the relatively restricted range of climate fluctuations at Charwell see Table III and so is not plotted in Figure 5C. At Cloudy Peaks, a-values determined from OSL age control conform with those that would be predicted by the three separate measures of Wx.
This suggests that absent independent age control, climate and petrologic information can be used to estimate a-value in Torlesse greywacke sub- terranes. We note that this empirical approach does not seek to fully describe a fundamental relationship between Wx and a-value. There are undoubtedly other variables, such as vegetation and site-specific chemistry differences that affect chemical weathering rates. Additionally, chemical weathering rates in paleo-climates are not addressed - it is assumed that all sites are affected equally by past climate change, though the orders of magnitude timescale differences considered here mean that this is not the case e.
Vance et al. However, the high correlation coefficients and predictive Figure 6. Relationship of SHR to modal weathering rind thickness for capability of the regression equations imply that these effects the Charwell, Saxton, and Waipara River sites. References for are small compared to the climatic extremes and petrologic weathering rind data are the same as for ages at respective study sites variables for which Wx accounts.
Using several geotechnical indices, Hodder and Hetherington showed that there is a quantifiable relationship between chemical weathering indices and rock strength using SH, Applicability of SHD to fluvial terraces Shore hardness, and Point load tests for Torlesse greywacke in New Zealand. Likely explanations for early- to mid-Holocene stabilisation include 1 substantial changes of soil moisture conditions and related thermodynamics within the active layer affecting frost action, 2 loss of fine-grained substrate matrix from the coarse stripes and hence reduced frost susceptibility, and 3 exhaustion of supply of boulders from the fines-dominated areas.
Whereas the sorted stripe data set as a whole did not reproduce the altitudinal gradient characteristic of sorted circles on Juvflye, the strength of the relationship between sorted stripe mean RRock-values and altitude increased with declining slope gradient.
glacial erosion and implications for Schmidt-hammer dating at a glacierforeland boundary, Fabergstolsbreen, southern Norway. The Holocene 17, - UK A39 Rode, M. & Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A. : Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of rock glaciers in the Schoderkogel-Eisenhut area, Schladminger Tauern Range, Austria. ABSTRACT: Schmidt hammer (SH) R-values are reported for surface clasts from numerically dated Holocene and Pleistocene fluvial mcauctionservicellc.com-valuesare combined withpreviously obtainedweatheringrind,radiocarbon, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence terrace ages to derive SH R-value chronofunctions for greywacke clasts from four distinct locations. Performing Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) based on application of a new local age-calibration equation for R Rock-values yielded SHD-ages between ± and ± years ago, which are closely comparable to results obtained previously from sorted circles at the same location. The age estimates are interpreted as 'composite Cited by: 1.
Although interpretation of SHD-ages for patterned ground remains challenging, this successful application of the electronic Schmidt-hammer, with its increased efficiency and technical improvements over the mechanical Schmidt-hammer, offers considerable potential for future SHD-studies in both morphodynamic and palaeoclimatic contexts.
AB - Measurements with an electronic Schmidt-hammer RockSchmidt were conducted on 23 sites of sorted stripes periglacial patterned ground on Juvflye, Jotunheimen central South Norway. Overview Fingerprint. Abstract Measurements with an electronic Schmidt-hammer RockSchmidt were conducted on 23 sites of sorted stripes periglacial patterned ground on Juvflye, Jotunheimen central South Norway. These include hammers, axes, erm, geological, wrenches and has more daring when penny out that.
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In this study three rock glaciers consisting of gneiss were dated applying the Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) method. The rock glaciers are located at three neighbouring cirques in the Seckauer Tauern Range named Reichart Rock Glacier (RRG, area km?, length m, elevation range m a.s.l.), Schoneben Rock Glacier. Similar Items. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of sorted stripes on Juvflye, Jotunheimen (central South Norway): Morphodynamic and palaeoclimatic implications by: Geraint, Owen, et al. Published: ; Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of snow-avalanche impact ramparts in southern Norway: approaches, results and implications for landform age, dynamics and . Performing Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) based on application of a new local age-calibration equation for R Rock -values yielded SHD-ages between ?±? and ?±??years ago, which are closely comparable to results obtained previously from sorted circles at the same mcauctionservicellc.com by: 1.
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Mar 01, Performing Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) based on application of a new local age-calibration equation for R Rock -values yielded SHD-ages between ± and ± years ago, which are closely comparable to results obtained Cited by: 1. Schmidt-hammer rebound values (R-values) enable relative-age dating of landforms, with R-values relating to degree of weathering and therefore length of exposure. This method - recently termed as S. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) combining Schmidt-hammer and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) has recently been successfully applied in Norway and New Zealand. Schmidt-hammer tests have also been used to ensure the representativeness of boulders selected for .
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